The wall and floor of small test wells in a plastic plate are coated with “HIV” proteins.
Diluted blood serum of the person being tested is added to the well. Antibodies in the serum bind to the “HIV” proteins. These antibodies are regarded as “HIV” antibodies.
The serum is rinsed from the well
A detector antibody (a non-specific antibody) with an enzyme attached is added.
Excess detector antibody is rinsed from the well
A chemical that reacts with the enzyme to produce a coloured compound is added to the well. The intensity (optical density) of the colour is proportional to the amount of detector antibody that has bound.
The ELISA has an optical density cut off value below which a person is considered negative.
The “HIV” proteins are separated on a gel which has a pore size appropriate to separating proteins of a particular molecular weight range. An electric current is applied across the gel. This moves the proteins through the gel because they are charged. Smaller proteins move through the gel faster than large ones so the proteins become separated into bands according to molecular weight.
The bands in the gel are blotted onto nitrocellulose paper and the paper is cut into strips. Each strip of paper has a band on for each of the “HIV” proteins used in the test.
The paper strips are incubated with serum from the person being tested. Antibodies in the serum bind to the proteins on the strips.
The serum is washed away
Enzyme linked detector antibody is added, this binds to any serum antibodies that bound to the strips. The excess antibody is washed out.
The strips are exposed to a chemical that reacts with the enzyme to produce a colour. The intensity of the colour defines an optical density cut off.
Two things can cause a positive test result without assuming the presence of HIV:
Conditions that temporarily raise antibody level above a certain threshold
The immunological imbalance detailed below.
Note that Africans naturally have a higher level of antibodies and are therefore more likely to test positive. According to Kremer those with blood group B also have a higher level of antibodies.
NO (Nitric oxide) gas is an oxidising agent that is used by the body for immune defence to destroy invaders INSIDE cells. The problem is that this can can also damage our own cells if they do not contain sufficient levels of antioxidant, principally glutathione. In the absence of antioxidative protection we have over production of NO gas which destroys healthy cells especially Type 1 CD4 cells (see IMMUNOLOGICAL IMBALANCE) because they produce their own NO gas. As a defence mechanism the immune cells that produce NO gas stop producing it and become ineffective.
If conditions in immune cells continue to be oxidising this can also cause damage to mitochondrial DNA. Mitochondria use oxygen to produce ATP which is the chemical fuel of the cell. If the mitochondria are not working properly, free-radicals (highly reactive chemicals) accumulate and damage the cell. Anti HIV drugs cause this damage because they inhibit mitochondrial DNA synthesis. Cells with rapid turnover such as CD4 cells are particularly prone to this effect because damage to mitochondrial DNA accumulates more quickly. The protease inhibitors also destroy T cells and the nucleoside analogs (AZT, ddI, D4T, 3TC, etc) destroy and/or suppress the bone marrow where all immune system cells are born.
There are two types of immunity: Cellular immunity is concerned with removing invaders INSIDE cells, antibody immunity is concerned with removing invaders OUTSIDE cells. There is one type of CD4 cell for each type of immunity. Type 1 CD4 cells are concerned with stimulating and executing cellular immune responses, type 2 CD4 cells are concerned with stimulating antibody production, they do not produce NO gas and so are not prone to oxidative stress and damage from their own NO gas producion as are Type 1 cells.
Any type of stress (physical, emotional, chemical etc.) can cause the release of cortisol into the blood stream. Increased levels of the anti-inflammatory hormone cortisol can suppress cellular immunity (Type 1 CD4 cell activity) and cause Type 2 CD4 cells to migrate from the blood to the bone marrow where they stimulate antibody production. This is why athletes have low CD4 counts.
TYING EVERYTHING TOGETHER
The imbalances detailed above influence and reinforce each other to drive the system towards AIDS, a state in which cell breakdown processes dominate cell build up processes. Disruption of mitochondrial function deprives the body of the energy required to build up its structures and maintain itself, this results in wasting (myopathy).
The process starts with oxidative imbalance due to nutritional stress and/or chemical stress and/or chronic illness and/or unrelenting emotional/psychological stress. These factors can lower the level of glutathione (antioxidant protection) below a certain threshold. When this happens, immune cells called antigen presenting cells instruct immature CD4 cells to mature into predominantly Type 2 cells rather than Type 1. The stress also causes cortisol release which suppresses Type 1 activity and stimulates Type 2. If the oxidative stress continues then fewer Type 1 cells are produced and their NO gas production is suppressed, more Type 2 cells are produced and so more antibodies are produced.
Glutathione is the major water soluble antioxidant in the body so levels of this compound are the major determinant of the oxidative state of the system. Other antioxidant supplements such as alpha lipoic acid can regenerate glutathione. The most effective way to increase levels of glutathione orally is to take S-acetyl glutathione along with N-acetyl cysteine.
All “HIV” positives have a DHEA deficiency and excess cortisol. DHEA is the hormone that works against cortisol and stimulates cell build up processes. For women it is best taken in the form 7 keto DHEA to avoid its effect on other hormones. Men should take no more than 200 mg a day of DHEA because there is a risk of prostate problems. Both DHEA and 7 keto DHEA are illegal for sale in the UK. Fortunately it is not essential to take DHEA in either form because Moducare (see below) restores DHEA levels, athough this takes a long time.
Taking Moducare restores the balance between Th1 and Th2.